On 8 April 2009, a North West counter-terrorism unit (NWCTU) investigation, conducted in conjunction with Merseyside, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and the Metropolitan Police Forces, resulted in the arrest of 12 Pakistani students for their alleged involvement in a terrorist plot. This investigationÂ was known as Operation Pathway.
The case gave rise to deportation proceedings (before SIAC) and an unsuccessful attempt to apply for judicial review of the detention and search warrants: Sher, Farooq and Sharif v Chief Constable of Greater Manchester Police and others  EWHC 1859 (Admin).Â The claimants in the latter case subsequently applied to the European Court of Human Rights (Applications nos. 29062/12, 26289/12 and 29891/12), which communicated their case to the Government in October 2013.
Both the Divisional Court and the European Court of Human Rights have referred to the report of Lord Carlile.